August 15, 2023

Are All Shocks Alike? Evidence From the Effects of Oil Shocks on Military Expenditure in Nigeria

In resource-endowed countries, the ability of governments to spend on the critical sectors of their economies depends on the stability of resource prices. Similarly, in crude oil-endowed countries, governments face fiscal constraints during a decline in crude oil prices. Such declines often affect economic performance and mostly result in economic downturns (Raifu et al., 2020). This has been the experience of Nigeria, the largest oil-producing country in Africa. Since crude oil was discovered in 1956 at the Oloibiri village of Niger Delta and became commercialised in the early 1970s, it has become the mainstay of Nigeria’s economy. The survival of Nigeria’s economy largely depends on oil price stability and oil revenue generation.