Public Spending on Education and Health in Nigeria

A Benefit Incidence Analysis

The paper conducts a Benefit Incidence Analysis to determine if public expenditure in education and health sector in Nigeria is pro-poor or pro-rich.

Publication Date: December, 2010

Document Size: 19 pages


  • Determine how to answer the question: Is public expenditure in education and health sector in Nigeria pro-poor or pro-rich?


  • BIA as a tool focuses on how government subsidies affect the distribution of welfare in the population. It addresses the issue of supply and demand for public services and delivers information on efficiency and equity in government allocation of resources for social services and on the public utilization of these resources. The central idea behind BIA is to gain a better insight into how government funds are distributed across different income/expenditure groups or if spending is in reality targeted to either worse-off or better-off households.
  • Commonly used to examine the impact of public expenditure
  • Analysis applicable to direct transfers or transfers obtained from consuming subsidized goods or services
  • This is the first attempt to conduct a rigorous BIA in Nigeria on how effectively the Nigerian government is