Project Reports

March 16, 2012

Cost Effectiveness And Benefit Cost Analysis Of Some Water Interventions In Bauchi State In Nigeria

This study presents a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
of two water interventions in Bauchi state, Nigeria aimed at reducing the
incidence of and death from diarrhea disease namely: the Pipeline and Hand pump
water supply schemes.

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Author:Eberechukwu Uneze,Ibrahim Tajudeen&Ola Iweala

Publication Date:September, 2011

Document Size: 42pages

This report presents a Cost-Effectiveness analysis of water interventions in Bauchi state,Nigeria, with particular emphasis on pipeline and borehole (Hand pump) water supply schemes.Using the measures adapted from Whittington et al (2008), this study estimates the cost andeffectiveness measures such as time savings and health benefit aimed at reducing the incidenceof and death from, diarrhea disease. First, it conducts a BASIC CEA which compares the cost perhousehold per year of PWS with BWS program. Second, it performs a PROGRAM CEA todetermine the relative effectiveness of the programs. The cost analysis shows that BWS is lessexpensive than PWS. Combining cost and effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness ratio shows theBWS is more cost-effective than the PWS program.

Nevertheless, CEA is not sufficient to determine the most attractive intervention, since itcannot quantify cost and effectiveness in the same unit. Hence, a benefit-cost analysis, whichestimates the monetary value of benefits, is applied. The results of the BCA seem to supportthe evidence that emerged from the cost-effectiveness analysis.

A sensitivity analysis is then performed to determine the robustness of these findings. A onewayand multi-way sensitivity analyses (with worse and best case scenarios) performed on theresults show that BWS is more cost-effective and attractive. The study then concludes with arecommendation that in areas where there are high cases of morbidity/mortality fromdiarrheal, access to portable water and improved health outcomes in densely populated areascan be achieved by diverting resources from BWS to PWS, that is by increasing pipeline watersupply. The converse is true for sparsely populated areas with low cases of morbidity/mortalityfrom diarrheal. However, in mildly populated areas with moderate cases ofmorbidity/mortality, PWS and BWS can be implemented as complements.



Nigeria Economic Update (Issue 18)

Recent Data released by the Nigeria Bureau of Statistics reveals an increase in total public debt stock between 2015 and 2016. Foreign and domestic debt stock stood at $11.4 billion and N14.0 trillion respectively as at December 2016, from $10.7 billion and N10.5 trillionrecorded as at December 2015. Disaggregated data shows that foreign debt sources comprised Multilateral ($8.0 billion), Bilateral ($0.2 billion) and Exim bank of China ($3.2 billion); domestic sources included government bonds, treasury bills and bonds. The federal government and states accounted for 68.7% and 31.3% respectively of foreign debt stock; 78.9% and 21.1% respectively of domestic debt stock. This maybe particularly at the backdrop of government borrowings in 2016 to finance its expenditure (mostly recurrent).

Nigeria Economic Update (Issue 29)

OPEC weekly basket price decreased marginally from $45.95 on June 24, 2016 to $45.26 on July 1, 2016,while Nigerias bonny light fell by $1, from $48.90 to $47.91. The apparent decline in crude oil price was driven by lingering market demand uncertainty, following the unexpected Brexit referendum. More so, ease in supply disruptions in Nigeria and Canada may have contributed to the downward pressure on prices. Going forward, until there is greater regulatory precision on global oil output levels, prices may likely remain stuck or continue to exhibit a downward trend. Although, Nigerias fiscal constraints slightly relaxed with oil production increasing in the review week (following repairs on sabotaged pipeline channels), potential global crude oil oversupply threatens governments revenues. However, oversupply threats could be reduced if there is a consensus on oil production quotas in the upcoming OPEC meeting.

Nigeria Economic Update (Issue 39)

The monthly monetary survey by the CBN shows a decline in money supply for the month of August 2017, relative to July 2017. Narrow and broad money supply dropped by 4.2% and 1.5% to N9,891 billion and N21,851 billion respectively. The continuous monetary contraction witnessed over the past months may be associated with aggressive sale of treasury bills by the CBN through open market operations. This act is capable of mopping up liquidity in the economy, reduce loanable funds in the banking system, and constrain the easing of lending rates in the near term.

Consequences Of School Resources For Educational Achievement

This paper examines the determinants of educational achievement in a developing country context, Burkina Faso. We deviate from the extant literature by constructing an aggregate index of school quality from the observable school resources. Also, we account for school choice constraints, faced by children especially in rural areas, as it relates to the geographical inequalities in the distribution of quality schools. These treatments provide an unbiased estimates of the relevance of school resources for academic performance. The empirical approach is based on a two-stage procedure that accounts for supply constraints in school choice.