Tobacco use and control in Nigeria and other African countries have received little attention relative to other regions like Asia and Latin America. This is due to the perceived low smoking prevalence in Africa compared to the more immediate need for interventions against infectious diseases. However, the trends are changing quickly. Economic growth rate in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) nearly tripled from an average of 1.7 percent in 80s and 90s to about 4.8 percent in the 2000s and 2010s, with Nigeria growing more than five-fold from 1.2 percent to 6.7 percent within the same period (World Bank, 2018). On a similar trend, albeit of lesser magnitude, is the smoking prevalence in Nigeria which grew from 11.3 percent in 2000 to 17.4 percent in 2015 (World Bank, 2017). A combination of rising incomes, population growth, media-driven social trends, and targeted advertisement by the tobacco industry are the key drivers of the rising prevalence in SSA.
African countries have been left out of the recent benefits accruing from international trade. For example, they accounted for only 3.2 percent of world trade in 2013 compared to 5 percent in the mid-1960s. Regional integration can reverse this weak performance as it holds the promise for countries to gain from the resultant economies of scale and enhanced competitiveness. It will also help to expand the markets for foreign direct investment.
Export and its Components: In 2015 and 2016Q1, overall export earnings declined significantly to a record low of less than $3000 million in 2016Q1, as against the peak of above $10,000 million in 2008
Nigerias Petroleum Products Imports statistics show a gradual reduction in the volume and value of petroleum imports (PMS, AGO, HHK) between May and September 2016. Specifically, volume of imports declined by 34.1 percent for PMS, 37.6 percent for AGO, and 60.3 percent for HHK in the period.The significant decline in imports in the reporting periods may be as a result of persistent forex scarcity issues faced by importers. On account of stagnation in domestic production of refined petroleum products, continuous decline in oil imports may create a demand gap with upward pressure on gasoline prices in the economy.