The original Industrial Revolution was powered by steam; the second by electricity. The rise of digitisation and automation generally defined the Third Industrial Revolution, which was largely powered by oil. Today, we find ourselves in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), which is largely powered and characterised by data. It can hardly be contested that data is central to today’s global economy in ways which it never has been before. Data flows across borders far more frequently than at any other point in time. Most importantly, these flows are creating or have created immense value (at least on aggregate) and are, therefore, central to businesses and business practices. They have fundamentally changed what and how much is traded, as well as with whom and how trade is conducted. Put differently, cross-border data flows have increased the scope, scale, and speed of trade.
October 21, 2022
Cross-Border Data Flows in Africa: Policy Considerations for the Afcfta Protocol on Digital Trade
This study presents a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of two water interventions in Bauchi state, Nigeria aimed at reducing the incidence of and death from diarrhea disease namely: the Pipeline and Hand pump water supply schemes.