Project Reports

July 23, 2012

Policy Simulation Of Measles Immunization Programs For Children In Borno State

This
study conducts a policy simulation exercise on two measles immunization
programs for children of age 9-23 months to determine the effectiveness and
success of measles vaccination coverage in Borno State, Northern Nigeria.

Read →

Author:Eberechukwu Uneze,Sabastine Akongwale&Ibrahim Tajudeen

Publication Date:June, 2011

Document Size:52 pages


Despite the efforts made by the Nigerian government, policy makers and other stakeholder toincrease children vaccination against infections, measles vaccination coverage remains verylow. While this problem is more profound in the northern part of Nigeria, its present form inBorno State even requires urgent attention. This study is an attempt to expose the issue. Itconducts a policy simulation exercise on two measles immunization programs for children ofage 9-23 months free immunization against measles with media awareness campaign (PolicyA) and free immunization against measles with house to house campaign (Policy B) to boostchildren measles immunization coverage. The study estimates the relative cost and theeffectiveness measure such as the health benefits morbidity avoided and mortality averted. Inwhat follows, it compares the cost per child covered and the cost-effectiveness ratios of thepolicy alternatives. The cost per child indicates that policy A has a lower cost and lower level ofcoverage, while policy B has a higher cost and a higher level of immunization coverage. In termsof cost of treating measles and the value of statistical life (VSL), the results of the costeffectivenessanalysis show that both policies are efficient. However, policy A has a lower costeffectivenessratio than policy B.

In terms of paying for the policy alternatives, two funding scenarios as well as the equitydistribution were analysed. The equity aspect of the exercise is to ensure that the policies arepro-poor. The findings of sensitivity analysis performed to determine the stability of the resultsshow that the results are not sensitive to changes in the values of the parameters. Overall,since both programs can be implemented (as shown by their cost-effectiveness ratios), therecommendation is that policy B be introduced in the rural areas characterized with high levelof illiteracy, uneven distribution of government hospitals, and poor electronic and print mediacoverage which often discourage or keep parent out of touch of the next vaccination date.However, policy A can be deployed in urban areas where there is reasonable distribution andaccessibility of government hospitals, organized electronic and print media coverage and highlevel of literacy. Lastly, in semi urban areas with moderate literacy, and electronic and mediacoverage, the best option will be for the government to implement both policies ascomplements, depending on resource availability.




Related

 

Nigeria Economic Update (Issue 5)

All Share Index (ASI) and Market Capitalization declined by 13 percent to close at 23514.04 points and N8.09 trillion respectively at the end of the trade session on January 15. The huge drop in the Index, representing a 3-year low, led to the introduction of the Index Circuit Breakers Rule. While this policy measure may prevent huge losses in the stock market, rising concerns about macroeconomic stability in Nigeria may significantly increase the level of volatility in the stock market. This may have substantial adverse implications for investors in the Stock Exchange.

Nigeria Economic Update (Issue 40)

OPEC weekly basket price declined by 2.4 percent to $42.68/barrel on September 16, 2016. This was triggered by a rise in US oil reserve, amid an outlook on weak global oil demand. Similarly, provisional data by OPEC reveals a steady decline in Nigerias crude oil production. Notably, production declined by 3.4 percent to 1.47 mbd in August, 2016.

Nigeria Economic Update (Issue 39)

Nigerias external reserve fell marginally by from $25.36 billion to $25.16 billion. The decline likely reflects the continued sales of dollar by CBN amid fall in oil revenue. Similarly, the naira/dollar exchange rate depreciated marginally by 0.5 percent to N424/$ at the parallel segmentas also seen in preceding weeks. The continued depreciation likely points to banks low level compliance to CBNs dollar sales directive made in August, 2016, thus creating artificial dollar scarcity in the parallel market.

Nigeria Economic Update (Issue 21)

Recent data from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) shows that the value of capital imported to Nigeria declined by 54.34 percent; from $1.56 billion 2015Q4to $710.97 million in 2016Q11. This is the lowest value since the data was first released in 2007. Huge declines in Portfolio Investment (71.54 percent) and other Investment (44.84 percent) were the major drivers of the trend within the period. A myriad of factors have contributed to the decline in investments. The plunge in crude oil prices, and the resultant negative signals on investors confidence, was a key factor. This was exacerbated by the FOREX restrictions and delays in the assentation of 2016 Appropriation Bill. While the slight increases in oil prices and the recent signing of the budget into law could improve the general economic prospects, monetary authorities need to proffer solutions to the negative effects of the current FOREX restrictions on investments.