The Nigerian economy raked in more revenue for the four quarters of 2018 fiscal year than in 2017. In the recently released economic report, the CBN reported that federally collected revenue increased by 28.4 percent to N9.44 trillion in 20181 – from N7.35 trillion in 20172. Both oil and non-oil components of federally collected revenue rose in the review year, attaining one-year peaks in 2018Q4 (N1.47 trillion) and 2018Q3(N1.14 trillion) respectively. The annual increase was most prominent in oil revenue sources, which grew significantly by 35 percent at the backdrop of 2018 improved oil price and domestic production, and accounted for N5.55 trillion of the total collected revenue. However, after statutory deductions and transfers, the federal government retained N3.96 trillion and a closer review shows that the FG expenditure pattern – at N7.36 trillion – resulted in a fiscal deficit of N3.4 trillion for the whole year 2018. Boosting non-oil sector trade and export, through infrastructure development and credit support, is critical to boosting overall government revenues to levels that match expenditure.
Macroeconomic Report & Economic Updates
Recent data on Nigerias labour market points to a rise in the rate of unemployment and underemployment in 2015Q4. Specifically, compared to 2015Q3, the rate of unemployment and underemployment rose to 10.4 per cent and 18.7 per cent from 9.9 percent and 17.4 percent respectively. These statistics however masks the true situation of the youth employment in Nigeria. Disaggregated data by age category shows that unemployment and underemployment within the youth age category (15-24) was remarkably higher than the national average, at 19 and 34.5 per cent respectively.
Carbon pricing has been recognized not only as the most efficient economic policy instruments to internalize the social cost of emissions, but also as a major tool to generate public revenues that can be used to offset the potential adverse distributional effects of climate policy. However, in many developing countries, there is a widespread reluctance to commit to climate policy, largely due to financial constraints, a lack of public support, and concern over its regressive effects.This paper makes recommendations towards the design of an effective carbon pricing system that not only discourages air pollution but also encourages the gradual uptake of climate-friendly technologies by the private sector in Nigerias oil and gas sector, while supporting public investment in sustainable infrastructures and projects that offset the distributional effect of the climate policy.