October 5, 2020

Nigeria Economic Update (Issue 37)

A recently conducted study by the World Bank shows that the cost of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution from exposure to fine particulate matter (PM₂.₅) stood at $2.1 billion or N631 billion (0.5% of Nigeria’s GDP).2 Lagos state has an exceedingly high concentration of PM₂.₅, at annual mean concentration  of levels of 68μg/m³ which exceed the World Health Organization (WHO)’s guideline for the annual mean PM₂.₅ level of 10μg/m³. Consequently, 11,200 people die from air pollution with 60 percent of the deaths under the age of 5. Sources of air pollution in the state include, road transport, heavy energy dependence on inefficient diesel and gasoline generators due to unreliable power, poor waste management, polluting fuel and stoves for household cooking etc. Air pollution is injurious to human health especially those that are already vulnerable – children, elderly, or people with existing health problems. In addition, it increases the rate of cardiovascular and respiratory ailments as well as mortality rates in the economy. Intrinsically, the life expectancy is reduced by air pollution. Therefore, to curtail these effects, low emission vehicles should be adopted and old generators should be discarded. Thus, they should be replaced with a better source of power such as renewable source of energy.

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Nigeria Economic Update (Issue 52)

Recently released population estimate figures by the Nigeria Bureau of Statistics, show a significant increase in Nigerias population, based on the 2006 census. Notably, total population grew by an estimated 40 percent from 2006, to 193 million persons in 2016. Also, disaggregate demographic data from 2007 to 2016, reveals an increase in the number of males (74 million to 99 million) and females (71 million to 95 million), with a 2016 gender (males to females) percentage ratio of 51:49. The high rate of population growth can be attributed to the improvements in average annual rate of natural increase the difference between crude birth rate and death rate. As in preceding years, the composition of children and youths make up the highest share of the population growth. This presents a potential increase in the rate of labour supply. Going forward, there is need for the government to support rapid job creation in order to check the potential upsurge in unemployment rate.